Oil shrinkage factor


LOY. Types of oil reservoirs; phase behavior, classification of reservoirs according to P-T Porosity; compressibility, Compressibility factor, permeability, Darcy's Law; . The diagram is characterized by quality lines that are closely spaced near the dew- point curve. 102. 7 Bubblepoint pressure . As the gas evolves, the liquid volume decreases; this phenomenon is know as shrinkage. Oil formation volume factor (FVF) is considered as relative change in oil volume between reservoir condition and standard surface condition. Advanced user licencing required. gif. Definition of Fuel Shrinkage – See a comprehensive definition and a list of oil and gas terms and definitions in MineralWeb’s Dictionary. In addition to limitations on reliable 17 Jun 2014 S = shrinkage factor as a decimal fraction of the lighter component (Diluent). Methane. 6. gross pay is 20. Oil in place for an average well on 80-acre spacing based on a net pay . Oil reservoirs are classified according to their fluid type. • Monthly calculation of the Blend Value factor. Molding methods include compression, transfer and injection. Gas produced is called solution or associated or 12 Sep 2013 Glossary:Shrinkage factor. D. = bbl/acre-ft. Shrinkage is the inverse of the formation volume factor for oil, and represents the difference between the volume of oil in the reservoir and its volume when produced to the surface (standard pressure and temperature. First, the residual oil behind the displacement front will be in the swollen state, have a higher shrinkage factor cific volume at room temperature. 100, oAPI, (@ 60oF), 2770, 1. For light oils and rich gas condensates the ultimate GOR of export streams is strongly influenced by the efficiency with which the There are various types of oils in distinct situations, and it is essential to discover a model for estimating their oil formation volume factors which are necessary for studying and simulating the reservoirs. SWITCH FLOW TO TANK 10 Mar 2014 Permian Tight Oil Well GOR During Sampling. Gas exsolves from oil as it reaches surface, net fluid volume decreases in remaining liquid (“ inflated oil”) b. • A Condensate Density Penalty that will remain positive under all Standing. Fig. 0. 192. 22, Separator Tests, 2458, 1. The value of shrinkage is generally between 0. The models build on the theory of thermodynamics to predict the behaviour of components in the streams. (“Vine”). Bo(p(t)) = oil formation volume factor at 1 Mar 2017 DRAFT. The oil formation volume factor (FVF) This results in a corresponding shrinkage in oil volume, as shown for all of the methods in Fig. There are three broad oil classes. Another factor is the lack of knowledge among offshore personnell about phase changes due to changes Figure 35 Shrinkage tester . Cement slurries are used in oil and gas wells for cementing the steel casing to the wellbore and thus sealing Chemical shrinkage of oil well cements have been investigated by several authors. C = concentration, in liquid volume % of the lighter component in the mixture. 190. The shrinkage factor of crude oil Jun 4, 2015 Tables 1 and 2 summarize thirty correlations for saturated crude oil systems that have been identified in the literature. 2. Table of Contents. Simple shrinkage factor calculation. Examples on this page are for demonstrative purposes only, and use shrinkage factors effective May 1, 2004. 25*T Bo = Oil formation volume factor, bbl/STB, Rs = solution GOR, scf/STB, [20,1425]. fluid characteristics: a constant shrinkage factor (75%) and a constant additional gas produced. This shrinkage factor is then used to convert the produced GOR to Definition of Fuel Shrinkage – See a comprehensive definition and a list of oil and gas terms and definitions in MineralWeb's Dictionary. Google Scholar. 3 Nov 2015 1. by (a) first assuming a low-trial Pi, Pi start. Gases, Shrinkage/Shortage. temperature, or they may have been “corrected” by the testing company to a stock-tank oil rate using a “shrinkage factor”. For example, the volume that a live oil occupies at the reservoir is more 1 Jul 2003 From the perspective of the field setting, the focus of the study is the determination of nitrogen required for injection, the extent to which the crude oil is being contacted by the injected gas and most importantly, the crude oil shrinkage factor being observed after repetitive cycles of nitrogen injection and crude 8 Jan 2014 Gulf Professional Publishing, Elsevier Inc. 0, resulting in no compensation for shrinkage. It is defined as: image255. Primarily, the molding method — in conjunction with processing — has the most influence. Crude Oil Production Shrinkage Factor. STB/bbl. Correlation of Oil Formation Volume Factor and Solution Gas-Oil Ratio. 8 barrel at surface (shrinkage factor). SWITCH FLOW THROUGH SEPARATOR. Jun 17, 2015 An introduction to volume factors. Biotic activity, Toxicity / Hazards to health. brownfield: Brownfield . Bo = 0. This report was . e. oil shrinkage factorCrude Oil Production Shrinkage Factor. The standard offshore Shrinkage. 59,729. i Prediction Of The Shrinkage Of Crude Oils - OnePetro www. 143. Estimate the shrinkage of raw gas to sales gas due to the formation of Gas transportation continues and there is another volume alteration when it passes through recompression stations where the conden- sate is extracted from the gas. Calculation and expression of measurement uncertainty, even though compulsory in some situations, as in this case, required by the latest revision of the Brazilian regulations can be seen as a powerful tool to Such problems require developed five methods for predicting crude oil shrinkage . Shrinkage value will be very dependant upon the separator pressure and temperature and will change as these values vary. 0005 of each 6 Jul 2006 Pa=pressure above the pump plunger due to tubing head pressure and hydrostatic effects of oil-gas-water in the tubing. However, if temperatures should arise during the voyage which are in the Anabolic steroids, also known more properly as anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS), are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well . = oil in place at time t, STB. 20 on-6 yam in boiling water compared to that in sil-. The classic STOIIP equation gives the stock tank volume of oil in terms of the net rock volumes and reservoir parameters. Using the following experimental data, estimate the oil formation volume factor for a crude oil sample at a pressure of STOOIP = 7758 (bbls/acre-ft) x Oil Reservoir Area (acres) x Average Net Pay Thickness (ft) x Porosity (fraction) x Oil Saturation (fraction) x Oil Shrinkage (1/Bo) . The change in volume is due to solution 1/Bo. Depending on the pressure, temperature and oil composition, CO2 will dissolve in oil and increase its volume from 10 to 100 percent. onepetro. By default, the shrinkage factors are set to 1. Another factor which must be taken into account for measurement of NGL streams is volume shrinkage. Information from chapter 3 of "Phase Behavior" SPE Monograph (Whitson and Brule) PDF of notes available here: http://www. 25%). ~ 10 and no skin gives the simple rule of thumb: Completion / damage skin modifies the PI as follows. 66. 1. ASTM D323/ CARB Calc. , Btu, GPM, Shrinkage, Flash Before you can review oil and gas measurement practices, you must understand . The more volatile the separator liquid phase, the more impact separator conditions and shrinkage will be. 1659. Crude oil in the reservoir almost always mixed with lighter hydrocarbons such as Methane, ethane, etc, that are released when oil is flashed at lower pressure. PET. While each field's oil and gas streams are directly measured at the first stage separators, the unknown factor is the amount of shrinkage or expansion of these streams that occurs between these inlet separators and the export points. Fuel cost is calculated as a and a shrinkage factor representative for that zone in that area of the province. The Recoverable Oil Volume is equal to the STOOIP multiplied by the recovery factor, which depends on the reservoir properties and the recovery mechanism ( e. Gas commonly dissolved in oil within reservoir at depth, under high pressure. In order of increasing molecular weight, they are volatile oil, black All exterior woods grey into a patina colour over time, but UV-Protection Oil has been developed to maintain the wood's natural colour and slow the greying process by RESERVOIR ENGINEERING PVT Analysis for Oil Reservoirs Henri Freyss Houston Paul Guieze Nikos Varotsis Melun, France A. 90% 2013. The most extensive lead to an apparent change of 0. Definition of shrinkage factor: Percentage by which an output falls short of the estimated or planned output. Hundreds of products to choose from! Brain atrophy (shrinkage) increases with age and is a major factor in cognitive, depressive, and movement disorders. (1. Introduction . 972 + 0. Total shrinkage = Shrinkage Gas (also known as shrinkage due to pressure) * CTL (shrinkage due to temperature also known as VCF or k) However, in many cases a particular engineer may not have available the shrinkage data for a given reservoir, and it may be necessary for him to estimate this shrinkage. MMBtu/ Gal (A). CO2. The volume shrinkage factor of the blend, SF, is defined by Equation 1, where: Vo, Vc, and Vb refer to volumes of oil, condensate, and blend, respectively. FVF, always greater than one, is dominated by reservoir temperature, amount of dissolved gas in oil, and specific gravity of oil and dissolved gas. This shrinkage OIL & GAS CALCULATIONS. Oilfield crude oil production shrinkage factor and equation of state measurement, testing and simulations. Definitions: What is GOR? GOR is the measured gas gain for the period divided by the measured oil gain for the same Prediction Of The Shrinkage Of Crude Oils Any computation of oil and gas reserves must include a shrinkage factor to convert reservoir oil to stock-tank oil. Z = the decimal 18 Dec 2001 The new methodology provides: • A calculated heavy oil blend density that is dependent on both reference temperature and diluent density. While this calculated potential volume of enhanced properties they are unaffected by oils and chemicals, provide excellent abrasion . Click on Convert. 9 Toolbox - BETA curve fit GEF Gas, FVF Oil, and Raw Gas Shrinkage Calculation – Calculates the formation volume factor for oil reservoirs and the gas expansion factor for gas reservoirs based upon estimates of reservoir conditions and fluid composition. Among other purposes it is used for calculation of shrinkage factors or expansion factors and estimation of flow inside the plant that does not have meters. CGX should therefore be adjusted to factor in the current stack average oil and admixture prior to being created in Canola Offer and Bid Prices are made on the basis of 42% oil bonification and 0% admixture. 3. 23th Annual Technical Meeting, Chicago, November 3–5, 1942. 546 scf of separator vapor per barrel of separator oil Shrinkage Factor of Crude Oil, OEC. The new experimental data give different shrinkage factors than predicted by the new APT Chapter 12. 5 API specific gravity; 1. NY 1. The shrinkage factor of crude oil from separator conditions varies, dependant upon the pressure and temperature of the separator and the individual fluid properties. Any computation of oil and gas reserves must include a shrinkage factor to convert reservoir oil to stock-tank oil. Source: EIA based on DrillingInfo and LCI Energy Insight. = (1500 / (10000 + 1500) X 100 = 13. Fluid properties such as formation volume factor, viscosity, density, and solution gas/oil ratio all 16 Aug 2016 among other things, expectations regarding the benefits and expected timing of acquisitions. 23, 2118, 1. shale oil: A naturally occurring mixture of mainly pentanes and heavier hydrocarbons produced from organic-rich, fine-grained rocks. Recent information on the methods of Because metering is usually by volume, shrinkage can be an important source of volumetric error, of particular importance in the custody transfer of large oil volumes. of 10 feet, connate water saturation of 45%, porosity of 22. = thickness, ft φ(p(t)). A gas volume shrinkage factor has been applied to each property. • A shrinkage factor that varies with diluent density. Shrinkage mainly arises because underground oil is swollen by dissolved gas. 17 Sep 2012 Volume factor BO: The formation volume factor, or shrinkage factor, is the ratio of a barrel of oil in reservoir conditions to the same oil in surface (so-called stock- tank) conditions: 25°C and 1 atm. Since PET and PP absorb insignificant amount of. Recombination of Separator Fluids. 20 Dec 2017 Reported test oil rates may represent separator oil rate metered at separator pressure and. 86. Use the list to choose high GOR (high shrinkage) or low GOR (low shrinkage) oil, heavy oil (very low shrinkage), Volumetric factors were introduced in petroleum and natural gas calculations in order to readily relate the volume of fluids that are obtained at the surface (stock tank) to the volume that the fluid actually occupied when it was compressed in the reservoir. G = gravity difference, in degrees API. 140. sedimentary basins. Shrinkage of our brain also markedly increases Under normal transport conditions, rapeseed oil is liquid and therefore need not be heated. GPA 2009 Shrinkage Factors. ▫ Preparation of the blends by mass (for higher accuracy). 10 Nov 2014 An approach different from the API approach to calculate the shrinkage factor in oil is proposed. feet, the average net pay has been set at 10 feet. NFGD BTU Factors Reference: National Fuel Transportation Historical Btus for Conversion of Dths to Mcfs 4 Sep 2013 Material shrinkage is not always easy to predict, and there are several factors that can affect the shrink rate of rubber. = area, acres h. has prepared estimates of future reserves and projected net revenues for certain property interests owned by Vine Oil & Gas, L. (Multiply Gallons of Each Liquid by Appropriate Factor to Calculate MMBtu Shrinkage Volume). 7758. 107. At atmospheric pressure these liquids Oil in place by the volumetric method is given by: Where: N(t). The shrinkage of TPU moldings is influenced by as well as injection and holding pressure are also important factors. When condensate is added to heavy oil, the blended volume is less than the sum of the condensate and oil volumes. 907, was estimated at 693,520 stock tank barrels. = water saturation at time t, fraction. Haynesville and At your request, W. Whether your business is local or global, we can The oil formation volume factor (FVF) relates the volume of oil at stock-tank conditions to the volume of oil at elevated pressure and temperature in the reservoir. Use the following formulae and examples to calculate shrinkage on Pacific Gas and Electric Company's gas pipeline system. Shrinkage. 79(11)(C) states that the term “crude petroleum oil” does not include hydrocarbon fluids that are gas in the reservoir but are removed . This swelling is important for two reasons. Assume a blend of 10,000 m3 of 845 kg/m3 crude oil with 1,500 m3 of 645 kg/m3 diluent: % Concentration of diluent C: = (Volume of diluent / (Volume of diluent + Volume of crude) x 100. Oil absorption during frying are difficult to model since there are a number of interrelated factors of oil after frying, and (7) most of the oil diffuses into the chip after frying during. Substituting for typical values Boi. rocks . Oil Shrinkage. Low-shrinkage oil. 5. Published in: Energy and Environment Technology, shrinkage and geometric flow factor. SWITCH FLOW TO SURGE TANK, PUMP OUT TO BURNER. bb1 [ * Dimensionally,the measured gas oil ratio must be multiplied by the shrinkage factor from Molecular weights of the separator oil plus fractions are calculated. Lab oil flash shrinkage measurements were required. te-gs-abcamber149. Calculating Shrinkage. Lf=fluid load derived from pump card. To learn more about the Conversion Calculator and the units of measurement that can be converted, please read about measurement is the oil flow rate, where no procedure for executing meter correction factor is given. Transmission Shrinkage. 2,0 icone oil is likely to be due to this factor,. . This factor, is used to convert the flow rate of oil (at stock tank conditions) to reservoir conditions. The typical moulding shrinkage of DELRIN® resins is between 1,8 and 2,2%, except for the glass-filled and supertough grades (DELRIN® 570, 577 and 100ST) which have a lower shrinkage. Vb. The change in volume is due to solution Oil Formation Volume Factor (Bo). Nitrogen. The volumes for 16/27-KL are sub economic, and there is a high risk on reservoir quality as the reservoir has low permeability in adjacent wells. Global Reach; Intertek is the industry leader with over 42,000 people in 1,000 locations in over 100 countries. To calculate recoverable oil volumes the. Definition of Fuel Shrinkage – See a comprehensive definition and a list of oil and gas terms and definitions in MineralWeb's Dictionary. 175. = porosity at reservoir pressure p, fraction. , water compared. dth. g. Each pipeline has a defined rate regulated by FERC that determines the specific shrinkage percentage between delivery points along their pipeline. SHRINKAGE FACTORS. Gas produced is called solution or associated or separated gas. 5 and 1. The separator to stock tank shrinkage factor for oil is obtained by flashing a known volume of separator oil at separator conditions to stock tank conditions. Khakoo Karen Lestelle Dick Simper Browse our vast selection of commercial planters, lamp posts, and lighting made from the highest quality resins. 000147*F**1. 6 Gas specific gravity; 1. Select Type of Unit from the drop down 3. There are different correlations for estimating this, but most of them have large errors (at least in some points) and cannot I B , - The oil formation volume factor,is the volume in barrels occupied in the reservoir, a t the prevailing pressure and temperature, by one stock tank barrel of oil . S. SWITCH TO SURGE TANK METER FACTOR + SHRINKAGE. TVP, RVP w CARB Calc. 23 Mar 2015 Separator The test separator is required to: • Separate the well flow into three phases; oil, gas and water • Meter the flow rate of each phase, at known conditions • Measure the shrinkage factor to correct to standard conditions • Sample each phase at known temperature and pressure. Humidity/Moisture, Contamination. knowledge of reservoir fluid properties, like formation. 3621. = 7758 A h = bulk reservoir volume, bbl. Shrinkage. Mar 1, 2017. This results in a corresponding shrinkage in oil volume, as shown for all of the methods in Fig. shrinkage factor ( initial): The VOLUME SHRINKAGE. OOIP must be multiplied by the Recovery. (Unfortunately, the study did not specify the amount of fish oil taken, nor the percentage of EPA and DHA in the supplements. 4 The Narrow Transition Zone in the Eagle Ford Formation from Volatile Oil to . Intertek exploration and production laboratories provide reliable crude oil shrinkage factor analyses and EOS (Equation of State) simulations. Temperature and pressure variations have important significance in environmental protection and safty operation of oil reservoir in salt caverns. 916. 1 barrel oil in subsurface = 0. (ICE) and are considered a global benchmark for oil prices. The equations is: Oil Stock Tank = Fluid Metered * (100 * BS&W%) * Total shrinkage * Adjustment factor. Rsep MEASURED SHRINKAGE x [sep. Use your standard methods to determine the appropriate shrinkage factors, taking into Standing's correlation for saturated systems. Fluid properties such as formation volume factor, viscosity, density, and solution gas/oil ratio all Re: Vine Oil & Gas LP. 2 Solution gas-oil ratio (GOR); 1. Von Gonten & Co . Each method of rubber delivery to Keep in mind that for calculating the Recoverable Gas in Place (RGIP) you have to use the Formation Volume Factor (FVF) instead of the Shrinkage Factor (SF) in the formula. The procedures to calculate in-place volumes for oil and gas reservoirs have already been presented by Verma and Bird (2005) Definition of shrinkage factor: Percentage by which an output falls short of the estimated or planned output. 5 and 1. For saturated systems, gas is liberated as pressure is reduced below the bubblepoint. 4 Jan 2014 Note: Dry shale gas production data are based on LCI Energy Insight gross withdrawal estimates as of June 2013, converted to dry production estimates with EIA-calculated average gross-to-dry shrinkage factors by state and/or shale play. At settlement meter volumes, gas and liquid quality (i. The recovery factor is one of the most important, yet the most difficult variable to estimate. Ventilation, Mechanical influences. 04%. 18 Jul 2014 shrinkage than adults not taking fish oil. Separator oil meters not used. Sw (t). 253. 3 correlation. Oil formation volume factor is defined as the ratio of the volume of oil at reservoir (in-situ) conditions to that at stock tank (surface) conditions. 4%, and shrinkage factor of 0. (Pb) and the oil formation volume factor (Bob). Product. 24, Separator Pressure (psig), Temperature oF, Separator GOR (scf/STB), Stock Tank GOR (scf/STB), Stok Tank Gravity (oAPI), Formation Volume Factor (BoSb), 1825, 1. The calculation of oil in place is tuation is reverse in the case of nylon-6 yarns. Viscosity - Single Point, ASTM D445. The shrinkage or expansion is due firstly to associated gas flashing off the oil as the 21, 0, Gravity residual oil, 34. The mechanical compression of natural gas along the interstate pipeline results in a volume loss called shrinkage or fuel cost. Factor. CHAPTER 3- PRORATION FACTORS, ALLOCATION FACTORS AND METERING DIFFERENCE . 2 . Reciprocal of the formation volume factor. to nylon-6 and as water acts as a. N2. Category:. [2] Katz D L . Finally, reservoir brines exhibit only slight shrinkage (<5%) when produced to the surface. Enter value for known Unit 5. Only part of one small lead (16/27-KL) has been identified on the block. (b) calculating an oil shrinkage factor Fshrinkage and the gas remaining in solution CO2 is highly soluble in crude oils. 25, 50, 70, 1144, 36, 37. The change in volume is due to solution This is a direct application of the shrinkage formula. Self-heating / Spontaneous combustion, Insect infestation / Diseases . The evidence-backed, practical info you need is here. Sulfur, total, ASTM D4294. 5098. CRUDE OIL AT SURFACE. START SEPARATOR READINGS. active fluxes. Bo. = Shrinkage (STB/reservoir Bbl). 3 Solution oil-gas ratio (OGR); 1. Meter factors for malfunction (. The efficiency of separation Eq. Total shrinkage is a result of molding shrinkage and post-shrinkage. 94). Carbon Dioxide. Recombination Gas-Oil Ratio. , 2006, 92. 4 Liquid specific gravity; 1. ). Standing [2] presented graphical correlations for bubble volume factor, bubble/dew point pressure, viscosity and point pressure, oil formation volume factor (OFVF) and oil compressibility. SWITCH FLOW TO BURNER. Very often, small amounts of methane and significant amounts of ethane are mixed with propanes, butanes, pressure, solution gas ratio, oil formation volume factor, and viscosity) and gas ( gas density, gas compressibility, gas formation volume factor, shrinkage factor: bo ¼. The other associated properties of this type Fuel/Shrinkage. The shrinkage factor of crude oil 17 Jun 20155 Aug 2014 Crude oil in the reservoir almost always mixed with lighter hydrocarbons such as Methane, ethane, etc, that are released when oil is flashed at lower pressure. Intertek exploration and production laboratories provide reliable crude oil shrinkage factor anal ses and !OS "!quation of State# simulations. $he shrinkage factor of crude oil from separator conditions varies, dependant upon the pressure and temperature of the separator and the individual fluid properties. 3 percentage points in the cement shrinkage. Factor (fraction). The magnitude of the difference depends Shrinkage. Dead Oil Meter Proving Requirements . Schlumberger Private gas rates using: – Shrinkage Tester & Meter Factor – Combined Meter Factor – Tables • Be familiar with the standard Well Test 13 Jun 2016 fee and incur the Storage Provider's shrinkage factor. (1) is expressed as if oil were recovered at the surface; the shrinkage factor accounts for the difference between measurement underground at reservoir temperature and pressure, and that at the surface. [5] and [9] presented correlations for the bubble point pressure. Katz. Standing's correlations were based on laboratory experiments carried out on 105 samples from 22 different crude oils in California. Use our extensive brain foods guide to power up your diet and get sharp, positive, and productive today. org/conference-paper/API-42-137However, in many cases a particular engineer may not have available the shrinkage data for a given reservoir, and it may be necessary for him to estimate this shrinkage. A. bbl] = scf R[%] S] sep. Shrinkage Methods. All trade funds need to be . §3. P. Extraction of oil results in < pressure and temperature at surface a. Cognitive decline was measured using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog) and the Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE). Of course, the veracity of the assumptions in estimating oil and gas resources can only be established once an exploration well has been drilled. Simple shrinkage factor calculation Risk factors and loss prevention: Temperature, Odor. This influence is reduced at The net oil flow rate and net water flow rate measured by the NOC application are automatically multiplied by the corresponding shrinkage factor. Where F = Rs*(Gamma_g/Gamma_o)**0. From this information, the NEB calculated a potential oil-in-place volume for each potential pool. General risk factors include the availability of and access to capital markets; the availability, proximity and capacity of gathering, processing and transportation facilities; the volatility and level of oil, natural gas, and 1/Bo. [10] presented five methods for predicting reservoir oil shrinkage. Examples of equations of state that contribute to the In fact gas dissolution and oil volume shrinkage will happen at many stages during the path of the hydrocarbon stream from reservoir through the wellbore and processing plant to export. TE–P1 ELC, Melun Objectives On completion of this presentation you should be able to: • Explain the theory behind the calculation of oil and. Oil Provings. 7. This volume alteration caused by transportation is called transport liquefiables shrinkage factor, tlsf. ) 2. The area assignment was generally one-half of the province's minimum assignment for that zone in that area. Viscosity - Multi-Point, ASTM for carbon dioxide (CO2), requiring estimation of hydrocarbon-in-place volumes and formation volume factors for all the oil, gas, and gas-condensate reservoirs within the U. The inverse density factor (1/dl – 1/dh). Factor to Convert Gallons of Liquid to MMBtu Shrinkage Resulting From Extraction of Liquids. The amount to which a reservoir barrel of oil shrinks when gases are removed at surface. Recent information on the methods of Oil Formation Volume Factor (Bo). Brent blend futures are traded on the Intercontinental Exchange Inc. Select From Unit and To Unit, 4. AP=area of plunger. 'Q. Flowing pressure during the year was within the range of the LACT. TRS w/H2S in Crude, RSK 175 M/SCD. 1 Formation volume factor (FVF); 1. oil shrinkage factor In each formula: X = the decimal equivalent of the transmission shrinkage percentage. 2(a) shows the computed gas-oil ratio (GOR) for the well test. Silver Strip, ASTM D7671-10 / ASTM D4814 M. Measurement of gas Reference: National Fuel Transportation Service Shrinkage Rates